Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Economic News Release
PRINT:Print
ATUS ATUS Program Links

Access to and Use of Leave News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Friday, August 2, 2019                       USDL-19-1648

Technical information:  (202) 691-6339  *  atusinfo@bls  *  www.bls.gov/tus
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                              ACCESS TO AND USE OF LEAVE--2017-18
                          DATA FROM THE AMERICAN TIME USE SURVEY


In 2017-18, 90 percent of wage and salary workers had access to paid or unpaid leave
at their main jobs, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Twenty-one
percent of wage and salary workers took paid or unpaid leave during an average week.
Workers who took leave during an average week took an average of 15.6 hours of leave.
Fifty-six percent of wage and salary workers were able to adjust their work schedules
or location instead of taking leave or because they did not have access to leave in
2011. Seven percent of workers made such an adjustment in an average week. //LEAVE ZUNI3PO Test 11/4/20//

These findings are from a supplementary set of questions asked as part of the 2017-18
American Time Use Survey (ATUS). The ATUS is a continuous household survey that
provides estimates on how people spend their time. The data on wage and salary
workers' access to leave, use of leave, and ability to adjust their work schedules 
were collected as part of the 2017-18 Leave Module sponsored by the Department of
Labor's Women's Bureau. These data on leave were collected directly from wage and
salary workers. The data thus represent only workers' knowledge on these topics.
Workers sometimes do not know whether they can use leave or adjust their work
schedules or location until they have a need to do so. For more information about
the ATUS Leave Module, see the Technical Note.

Access to paid or unpaid leave in 2017-18:

   --On average, 59 percent of wage and salary workers had access to paid leave.
     Seventy-seven percent of wage and salary workers had access to unpaid leave
     and an additional 7 percent of workers were unsure whether they had access
     to unpaid leave. Ninety percent of workers had access to either paid or
     unpaid leave. (See table 1.)

   --Men and women were about equally likely to have access to paid or unpaid
     leave at their main jobs in 2017-18. Ninety percent of men had access to paid
     or unpaid leave compared with 91 percent of women. Comparisons of access
     to leave in this news release are on a broad level and do not control for
     many factors that can be important in explaining differences in leave access,
     including differences in the distribution of workers by their full- or
     part-time work status, educational attainment, and occupation. (See
     table 1.)

   --By occupation, workers in management, business, and financial operations
     jobs were the most likely to have access to paid leave (77 percent). (See
     table 1.)

   --Seventy-six percent of workers in the public sector had access to paid
     leave, compared with 57 percent of private-sector workers. (See
     table 1.)

   --Among single jobholders, full-time wage and salary workers were more
     than 3 times as likely to have access to paid leave than were part-time
     workers--71 percent compared with 22 percent. (See table 1.)

   --Among single jobholders, 83 percent of full-time wage and salary workers
     in the highest earnings range had access to paid leave, compared with
     50 percent of full-time workers in the lowest earnings range. Each
     earnings range represents approximately 25 percent of full-time wage
     and salary workers. (See table 1.)

   --Among wage and salary workers age 25 and over, 72 percent of workers with
     a bachelor's degree or higher had access to paid leave, compared with 35
     percent of workers with less than a high school diploma. (See table 1.)

Use of paid or unpaid leave in 2017-18:

   --Twenty-one percent of wage and salary workers took paid or unpaid leave
     during an average week. Workers who took leave during an average week
     took an average of 15.6 hours of leave. (See tables 3 and 4.)

   --Women were slightly more likely than men to take leave from their jobs
     during an average week--23 percent compared with 20 percent. (See
     table 3.)

   --In an average week, 6 percent of wage and salary workers reported their
     main reason for taking leave was a vacation, 5 percent took leave because
     they were ill or needed medical care, and 4 percent took leave mainly to
     run errands or for personal reasons. (See table 4.)

   --Of those wage and salary workers who took leave from their main jobs during
     an average week, 57 percent used only paid leave and 40 percent used only
     unpaid leave. Three percent of these workers used a combination of paid and
     unpaid leave. (See table 3.)

Ability to adjust work schedule or location instead of taking time off from work
in 2017-18:

   --Fifty-six percent of wage and salary workers were able to adjust their work
     schedules or location of their main jobs instead of taking time off from
     work in 2017-18. This includes wage and salary workers who adjusted their work
     schedules or location instead of taking leave as well as those who did so
     because they did not have access to leave but needed time off from work.
     (See table 5.)

   --Men and women were equally likely to be able to adjust their work schedules
     or location instead of taking time off from work. (See table  5.)

   --Among wage and salary workers age 25 and over, 61 percent of those with a
     bachelor's degree or higher were able to adjust their work schedules or
     location instead of taking time off from work, compared with only 38
     percent of workers with less than a high school diploma. (See table 5.)

   --In an average week in 2017-18, 7 percent of wage and salary workers adjusted
     their work schedules or location of their main jobs instead of taking time
     off from work. (See table 6.)

·  --Parents of a household child under the age of 13 were more likely to adjust
     their work schedules or location instead of taking time off from work in an
     average week than workers who were not a parent of a household child under
     18--10 percent compared with 6 percent. (See table 6.)

Additional data

All ATUS 2017-18 data files, including the Leave Module data files, are available for
users to do their own tabulations and analyses. In accordance with BLS and Census
Bureau policies that protect survey respondents' privacy, identifying information 
was removed from the data files and some responses have been edited. The 2017-18 data
files are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/tus/data.htm.




Technical Note

   The data in this release were collected through a supplementary set of questions,
the 2017-18 Leave Module, asked as part of the 2017-18 American Time Use Survey (ATUS).
The ATUS--a continuous survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau
of Labor Statistics--focuses on obtaining information about how individuals age 15
and over spend their time. In 2017-18, there were approximately 12,500 respondents to
the survey. For more information about the survey, see the ATUS User’s Guide at
www.bls.gov/tus/atususersguide.pdf. The purpose of the 2017-18 ATUS Leave Module was
to obtain information about workers' access to leave, use of leave, and ability to
adjust their work schedules or location. The data in this release pertain to wage
and salary workers and their main job. Self-employed incorporated workers are
classified as wage and salary workers. The data exclude all unincorporated self-
employed workers. Respondents to the 2017-18 Leave Module answered questions about
access to paid and unpaid leave, reasons for taking leave, use of leave during the
past 7 days, ability to adjust work schedules or location, times when leave was
needed but not taken, and other related topics.

   These data on leave were collected directly from wage and salary workers. The
data thus represent only workers' knowledge on these topics. Workers sometimes do
not know whether they can use leave or adjust their work schedules or location
until they have a need to do so. Leave Module data were collected from January
through December 2018.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Leave questions and concepts

   In the 2011 Leave Module, questions about access to and use of leave were asked of
wage and salary workers. The survey was introduced as follows: "The next few questions
are about paid and unpaid leave from a job."

   Following the introduction, respondents were asked about access to paid leave at
their main job, reasons for which they can take paid leave, and types of paid leave
available.

   Respondents were then asked about access to unpaid leave and reasons for which they
can take unpaid leave from their main job.

   If respondents answered that they had access to paid or unpaid leave, they were
asked whether they had taken any leave during the past 7 days. If they took leave,
they were asked about how many hours they took, the main reason for taking leave, and
if available, what type of paid leave they used.

   In the next set of questions, respondents were asked about their ability to adjust
their work schedules or location instead of taking leave (asked of those with access
to leave), or because they needed time off from work (asked of those without access
to leave). If the respondents indicated they could adjust their work schedules or
location, they were asked additional questions about how they can adjust their
schedules or location and whether they adjusted their schedules or location during
the past 7 days. Respondents who adjusted their work schedules or location instead
of taking leave were asked about their reasons for doing so, and their reasons for
not using leave instead. Respondents without access to leave were asked about their
reasons for needing to adjust their work schedules or location.

   Respondents who worked during the 7 days prior to the interview were asked if there
were situations during the past 7 days in which they needed to take off from work but
did not. If so, respondents were asked their reasons for needing leave, and their
reasons for not using leave instead. Respondents without access to leave were asked
about their reasons for needing leave.

   The final two questions asked respondents about their health in general and their
average level of pain during the past 7 days. The Leave Module questionnaire is
available at www.bls.gov/tus/lvmquestionnaire.pdf.

Definitions

Employment and earnings

   --Employed. All persons who, at any time during the 7 days prior to the interview:

     1. Did any work at all as paid employees; worked in their own business,
        profession, or on their own farm; or usually worked 15 hours or more
        as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise; or

     2. Were not working but had jobs or businesses from which they were
        temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, childcare
        problems, labor-management disputes, maternity or paternity leave,
        job training, or other family or personal reasons, whether or not
        they were paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs.

   --Employed full time. For the purpose of producing estimates related to leave,
     full-time workers are single jobholders who usually worked 35 hours or more
     per week.

   --Employed part time. For the purpose of producing estimates related to leave,
     part-time workers are single jobholders who usually worked fewer than 35 hours
     per week.
     
   --Main job. For persons holding more than one job, the questions in the Leave
     Module referred to the characteristics of their main job--the job in which
     they worked the most hours during the past 7 days.

   --Wage and salary workers. These are workers who receive wages, salaries, 
     commissions, tips, payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes
     employees in both the private and public sectors and self-employed persons
     whose businesses are incorporated, but excludes self-employed persons whose
     businesses are unincorporated.

   --Usual weekly earnings. Estimates represent the earnings of full-time wage
     and salary workers with one job only, excluding incorporated self-employed
     workers, before taxes and other deductions.

   --Weekly earnings ranges. The ranges used for the quartiles represent approximately
     25 percent of full-time wage and salary workers (incorporated self-employed workers
     are excluded) who held only one job. For example, 25 percent of full-time wage and
     salary workers with one job only had weekly earnings of $540 or less.

     The ranges used for the median represent approximately 50 percent of the full-time
     wage and salary workers (incorporated self-employed workers are excluded) who held
     only one job. For example, 50 percent of full-time wage and salary workers with one
     job only had weekly earnings of $830 or less.

Leave related

   --Paid leave. Respondents were asked "Do you receive paid leave on your job?" or, for
     those with multiple jobs, "Thinking about the job where you worked the most hours
     last week, do you receive paid leave on your job?" Respondents were identified as
     having paid leave at their main job if they answered "yes" to one of these questions.

   --Unpaid leave. Respondents were asked "Are you allowed to take time off from work
     without pay?" or, for those with multiple jobs, "In your main job, are you allowed
     to take time off from work without pay?" Respondents were identified as having
     unpaid leave at their main job if they answered "yes" to one of these questions.

   --Reasons for taking leave. If respondents answered "yes" to having paid or unpaid
     leave, they were asked about specific reasons for which they could take paid and
     unpaid leave. The reasons are: own illness or medical care; illness or medical 
     care of another family member; childcare, other than for illness; eldercare, other
     than for illness; vacation; errands or personal reasons; and birth or adoption of
     a child.

Other

   --Average week. The average week reflects an average across all wage and salary
     workers in the population for the period of 7 days prior to the interview day.
     Interviews are conducted on nearly all days of the year. The sequence of days
     included in the average week differs for respondents whose interviews were
     conducted on different days of the week. For example, if the interview was
     conducted on a Friday, the average week refers to the previous Friday through
     Thursday (yesterday). If the interview was conducted on a Monday, the average
     week refers to the previous Monday through Sunday (yesterday).

   --Health. Respondents were asked "Would you say your health in general is excellent,
     very good, good, fair, or poor?" Answers to this question were used to categorize
     health status for the estimates in this release.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the ATUS Leave Module are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, estimates differ
from the true population values they represent. The component of this difference that
occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate.

   Sample estimates from a given survey design are unbiased when an average of the
estimates from all possible samples would yield, hypothetically, the true population
value. In this case, the sample estimate and its standard error can be used to construct
approximate confidence intervals, or ranges of values that include the true population
value with known probabilities. If the process of selecting a sample from the population
were repeated many times, an estimate made from each sample, and a suitable estimate of
its standard error calculated for each sample, then approximately 90 percent of the
intervals from 1.645 standard errors below the estimate to 1.645 standard errors above
the estimate would include the true population value. BLS analyses are generally
conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The ATUS Leave Module data also are affected by nonsampling error, which is the
average difference between population and sample values for samples generated by a given
process. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample
a segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the
sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and
errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Nonsampling error and leave. Data provided in the Leave Module may be affected by
nonsampling error for a variety of reasons. Access to paid or unpaid leave may be
misreported if respondents are unaware of their employers’ leave policies. For example,
newer employees may not yet know whether they can take paid or unpaid leave from their
jobs, under what circumstances or for which reasons they can take leave, or the different
types of paid leave available to them. Some employers may have formal or written leave
policies, while others may rely on employees’ supervisors to convey and implement leave
policies. Unless employees have inquired about the specific leave arrangements, they
may not know if the specific leave arrangements are possible. For example, workers with
paid leave, who have never used unpaid leave, may not know if they can use unpaid leave,
or under what circumstances they may use unpaid leave.

   Differences between employer- and employee-based surveys. Estimates of access to leave
that are derived from responses to household (or employee-based) surveys may differ from
estimates produced using establishment (or employer-based) surveys. In general, employer-
based surveys often provide more detailed and accurate data on employer leave policies,
while household surveys allow researchers to examine demographic factors such as sex, age,
ethnicity, education, race, and health status and how they relate to leave availability
and usage.




Table 1. Workers with access to paid leave by selected characteristics, averages for the periods 2011 and 2017-2018
Characteristic Percent of workers with access to paid leave
2011(1) 2017-18(1) Change from 2011 to 2017-18
(percentage points)(2)
Yes No Do not
know
Yes No Do not
know
Yes No Do not
know

Age

Total, 15 years and over

90.2 98.4 9.2 94.8 94.0 9.2 9.6 9.4 9.0

15 to 24 years

95.9 91.0 9.0 97.2 99.7 9.1 91.2 91.3 9.1

25 to 34 years

93.9 95.0 9.9 99.0 90.2 9.7 9.2 9.8 9.2

35 to 44 years

97.3 91.5 9.8 91.0 98.1 9.9 9.7 9.4 9.1

45 to 54 years

91.5 98.1 9.4 91.2 97.6 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.7

55 to 64 years

96.7 91.7 9.1 92.9 96.2 9.9 9.2 9.5 9.2

65 years and over

96.6 91.3 9.8 99.2 90.6 9.2 9.6 9.7 9.6

Sex

Men

91.9 96.9 9.0 96.4 92.7 9.9 9.5 9.2 9.1

Women

98.3 90.1 9.4 92.9 95.5 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.2

Race

White

90.2 98.5 9.2 95.0 93.8 9.2 9.8 9.7 9.0

Black or African American

90.9 97.9 9.0 91.1 97.9 9.0 9.2 9.0 9.0

Asian

94.8 94.1 9.2 90.9 97.9 9.2 9.1 9.3 9.0

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

93.6 94.5 9.9 99.1 99.0 9.9 9.5 9.5 9.1

Non-Hispanic or Latino

92.8 95.9 9.0 97.9 91.1 9.1 9.1 9.9 9.0

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

95.0 93.8 9.2 97.0 99.9 9.1 9.0 9.9 9.9

High school graduates, no college

92.5 96.9 9.5 92.3 96.6 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.7

Some college or associate degree

98.0 90.8 9.9 99.7 99.8 9.5 9.7 9.0 9.3

Bachelor's degree and higher

94.1 94.6 9.0 98.1 91.3 9.6 9.0 9.3 9.4

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

95.0 94.2 9.7 99.8 99.1 9.1 9.8 9.1 9.5

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

98.1 91.6 9.3 92.0 97.8 9.2 9.9 9.8 9.1

Parent of a child under 13 years

94.2 94.8 9.8 99.2 99.4 9.4 9.0 9.4 9.6

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

97.7 90.6 9.4 92.3 96.5 9.2 9.5 9.1 9.2

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

91.5 97.1 9.9 92.0 97.4 9.7 9.5 9.3 9.2

Professional and related

91.0 97.9 9.8 95.1 94.2 9.7 9.1 9.6 9.1

Services

96.0 92.0 9.0 92.0 95.4 9.6 9.0 9.6 9.6

Sales and related

96.0 90.6 9.3 98.4 98.0 9.6 92.4 92.6 9.3

Office and administrative support

96.4 92.7 9.6 98.5 91.1 9.4 9.1 9.6 9.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

97.0 92.6 9.4 99.7 90.3 z 9.7 9.3 9.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair

91.1 98.7 9.1 97.8 90.0 9.2 9.6 9.7 9.1

Production

93.6 95.7 9.7 98.5 90.9 9.5 9.9 9.8 9.1

Transportation and material moving

98.7 90.6 9.5 99.7 99.4 9.9 -9.0 9.9 9.4

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s

Construction

91.1 98.2 9.5 95.2 94.8 z 9.1 9.4 9.5

Manufacturing

93.8 95.3 9.8 97.5 92.1 9.4 9.7 9.2 9.4

Wholesale and retail trade

94.4 92.7 9.9 91.0 96.4 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.2

Transportation and utilities

93.1 96.4 z 99.9 99.8 9.3 9.1 9.4 9.3

Information

92.4 96.5 9.1 93.4 96.6 z 91.0 90.0 9.1

Financial activities

91.1 98.1 9.2 95.2 93.6 9.3 9.0 9.5 9.1

Professional and business services

99.1 99.5 9.4 99.5 90.0 9.5 90.5 -9.6 9.9

Education and health services

95.9 93.2 9.6 97.2 91.8 9.0 9.3 9.4 9.5

Leisure and hospitality

94.7 91.8 9.2 94.5 91.9 9.6 9.8 -9.9 9.3

Other services

93.4 96.3 9.2 96.9 92.7 9.4 9.4 9.6 9.2

Public administration

99.2 90.7 9.2 98.8 90.6 9.6 9.3 9.1 9.4

Class of worker

Private sector

96.8 91.7 9.3 92.1 96.6 9.3 9.3 9.1 9.0

Private, for profit

96.2 92.2 9.4 91.4 97.2 9.4 9.2 9.0 9.1

Private, not for profit

93.0 96.7 9.3 98.1 91.7 9.1 9.1 9.9 9.2

Public sector

96.1 93.1 9.7 97.7 91.5 9.7 9.7 9.5 9.0

Federal government

96.3 92.0 9.7 98.4 91.6 z 9.1 9.4 9.7

State government

95.3 94.2 9.5 91.6 96.5 9.9 9.7 9.3 9.4

Local government

93.1 96.0 9.6 98.1 91.8 9.2 9.0 9.2 9.4

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

92.7 96.2 9.9 96.2 93.0 9.8 9.5 9.2 9.1

Part-time workers

92.7 94.4 9.7 94.1 92.7 9.2 9.4 9.7 9.5

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers
(single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

90.1 98.2 9.5 93.4 95.3 9.3 9.3 9.9 9.2

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

97.1 91.9 9.9 98.4 90.6 9.0 9.3 9.3 9.1

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

91.2 97.8 9.7 93.4 96.1 9.5 9.2 9.6 9.2

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

92.8 96.4 9.4 97.6 92.0 9.4 9.8 9.5 9.0

(1) The subcategories do not sum to 100 percent because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
(2) Changes were calculated using unrounded estimates for 2011 and 2017-18, and thus they sometimes differ from calculations based on the estimates shown in this table.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 2. Workers with access to paid or unpaid leave by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total workers
(in thou-
sands)
Percent of workers with access to:
Paid leave(1) Unpaid leave(1) Paid or unpaid leave(1,2)
Yes No Do not
know
Yes No Do not
know
Yes No Do not
know

Age

Total, 15 years and over

943,325 94.8 94.0 9.2 99.2 92.7 9.1 93.2 9.8 9.0

15 to 24 years

91,040 97.2 99.7 9.1 91.7 93.2 9.0 90.1 9.8 9.1

25 to 34 years

92,522 99.0 90.2 9.7 98.5 91.0 90.5 94.3 9.6 9.2

35 to 44 years

90,382 91.0 98.1 9.9 99.3 92.2 9.5 94.0 9.5 9.5

45 to 54 years

99,130 91.2 97.6 9.2 99.9 92.9 9.3 94.3 9.0 9.7

55 to 64 years

92,753 92.9 96.2 9.9 97.6 94.4 9.9 93.1 9.8 9.1

65 years and over

9,497 99.2 90.6 9.2 96.7 95.0 9.3 99.7 9.1 9.2

Sex

Men

95,594 96.4 92.7 9.9 99.1 93.5 9.4 93.4 9.2 9.4

Women

97,730 92.9 95.5 9.6 99.3 91.8 9.9 93.0 9.4 9.7

Race(3)

White

914,497 95.0 93.8 9.2 99.2 92.4 9.5 93.4 9.4 9.2

Black or African American

98,312 91.1 97.9 9.0 99.9 93.9 9.2 91.2 9.5 9.3

Asian

9,380 90.9 97.9 9.2 97.2 93.8 9.0 93.1 9.3 9.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(4)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

93,573 99.1 99.0 9.9 96.8 96.3 9.9 98.2 9.1 9.7

Non-Hispanic or Latino

919,751 97.9 91.1 9.1 99.6 92.0 9.3 94.2 9.0 9.8

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

9,400 97.0 99.9 9.1 93.5 98.6 9.9 99.9 95.3 9.8

High school graduates, no college

91,623 92.3 96.6 9.1 93.4 92.4 9.2 92.3 9.6 9.1

Some college or associate degree

98,627 99.7 99.8 9.5 91.3 92.7 9.1 95.5 9.4 9.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

94,633 98.1 91.3 9.6 95.4 91.9 92.7 95.5 9.9 9.6

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

97,629 99.8 99.1 9.1 98.8 92.6 9.6 94.2 9.1 9.8

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9,916 92.0 97.8 9.2 96.9 92.7 90.4 94.7 9.8 9.5

Parent of a child under 13 years

97,713 99.2 99.4 9.4 99.3 92.6 9.1 94.0 9.9 9.1

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

95,695 92.3 96.5 9.2 99.4 92.8 9.9 92.7 9.2 9.1

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

91,697 92.0 97.4 9.7 97.9 93.1 9.0 96.9 9.1 9.9

Professional and related

97,333 95.1 94.2 9.7 95.3 93.4 91.3 93.7 9.2 9.1

Services

93,784 92.0 95.4 9.6 92.5 92.8 9.6 90.6 9.3 9.2

Sales and related

92,351 98.4 98.0 9.6 91.6 9.7 90.7 93.7 9.5 9.8

Office and administrative support

99,798 98.5 91.1 9.4 97.7 93.8 9.5 92.2 9.0 9.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

9,847 99.7 90.3 z 95.8 90.4 9.8 93.7 9.0 9.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair

9,939 97.8 90.0 9.2 91.3 91.9 9.8 94.5 9.1 9.4

Production

9,001 98.5 90.9 9.5 91.2 95.5 9.3 91.2 9.6 9.2

Transportation and material moving

9,227 99.7 99.4 9.9 90.6 92.7 9.6 91.5 9.7 9.8

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s s

Construction

9,697 95.2 94.8 z 92.9 93.3 9.8 93.5 9.4 9.2

Manufacturing

96,528 97.5 92.1 9.4 99.0 94.0 9.0 94.4 9.4 9.1

Wholesale and retail trade

99,014 91.0 96.4 9.7 94.5 9.7 9.8 95.0 9.5 9.5

Transportation and utilities

9,018 99.9 99.8 9.3 91.3 94.9 9.8 93.8 9.3 9.9

Information

9,666 93.4 96.6 z 95.8 94.3 99.9 95.0 9.5 9.5

Financial activities

90,616 95.2 93.6 9.3 96.0 92.3 91.7 93.2 9.8 9.0

Professional and business services

95,942 99.5 90.0 9.5 96.4 93.9 9.7 94.5 9.9 9.6

Education and health services

96,775 97.2 91.8 9.0 95.9 94.3 9.8 91.9 9.5 9.6

Leisure and hospitality

93,226 94.5 91.9 9.6 94.1 90.9 9.0 99.3 9.6 9.1

Other services

9,704 96.9 92.7 9.4 94.3 9.6 9.1 92.0 9.1 9.9

Public administration

9,886 98.8 90.6 9.6 98.0 95.1 9.9 97.1 9.7 9.3

Class of worker

Private sector

918,698 92.1 96.6 9.3 99.5 92.8 9.7 92.9 9.1 9.9

Private, for profit

906,193 91.4 97.2 9.4 90.0 92.4 9.6 92.8 9.2 9.0

Private, not for profit

92,505 98.1 91.7 9.1 95.1 95.9 9.0 94.2 9.1 9.7

Public sector

94,627 97.7 91.5 9.7 97.7 92.4 9.9 94.4 9.4 9.2

Federal government

9,415 98.4 91.6 z 93.2 93.2 9.6 98.9 9.8 9.3

State government

9,272 91.6 96.5 9.9 96.3 92.6 91.2 91.6 9.3 9.1

Local government

91,940 98.1 91.8 9.2 96.7 92.0 91.3 94.6 9.5 9.9

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(5)

Full-time workers

903,981 96.2 93.0 9.8 97.6 93.2 9.1 94.3 9.8 9.9

Part-time workers

96,249 94.1 92.7 9.2 94.7 91.0 9.3 99.1 9.4 9.5

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

94,145 93.4 95.3 9.3 99.8 93.4 9.8 98.4 9.1 9.5

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

96,817 98.4 90.6 9.0 97.7 94.0 9.3 95.6 9.1 9.3

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

96,532 93.4 96.1 9.5 96.9 91.5 91.6 95.8 9.1 9.1

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

96,486 97.6 92.0 9.4 96.4 93.9 9.6 96.7 9.3 9.9

Work schedule flexibility(6)

Had flexible schedule

90,286 93.6 94.9 9.5 92.4 90.3 9.3 94.8 9.4 9.8

Did not have flexible schedule

93,038 96.3 92.8 9.9 95.0 95.9 9.1 91.1 9.6 9.2

Workplace flexibility(7)

Could work at home

99,983 99.1 99.9 9.0 98.2 90.8 91.0 96.5 9.9 9.5

Could not work at home

903,080 99.3 99.4 9.2 99.6 93.5 9.9 91.9 9.0 9.1

(1) The subcategories do not sum to 100 percent because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
(2) Some workers have access to both paid and unpaid leave.
(3) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(4) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(5) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(6) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(7) The subcategories do not sum to the total because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 3. Workers with access to paid or unpaid leave and their ability to use leave by reason, averages for the period 2017-2018
Leave types and reasons Percent of workers with access to leave
Yes, could use leave No, could not use leave It depends Did not know
Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

Workers with access to paid leave

Ability to use paid leave by reason:

Own illness or medical care

93.1 91.1 95.4 9.3 9.1 9.1 - - - 9.7 9.8 9.6

Illness or medical care of another family member

99.0 95.9 92.7 95.9 98.3 93.1 - - - 9.1 9.8 9.2

Childcare, other than for illness(1)

95.4 98.8 91.2 90.3 98.0 93.1 - - - 9.3 9.2 9.7

Eldercare(2)

91.3 90.6 91.9 98.8 93.1 95.2 - - - 9.9 9.4 92.9

Vacation

94.5 95.7 93.0 9.3 9.2 9.6 - - - 9.3 9.1 9.4

Errands or personal reasons

99.8 91.3 98.0 97.8 97.2 98.5 - - - 9.4 9.5 9.5

Birth or adoption of a child

95.0 93.2 97.1 95.6 97.9 92.8 - - - 9.5 9.9 90.1

Workers with access to unpaid leave

Ability to use unpaid leave by reason:

Own illness or medical care

92.7 91.6 93.9 9.9 9.7 9.0 9.2 9.0 9.4 9.2 9.7 9.7

Illness or medical care of another family member

95.9 95.6 96.1 9.8 9.7 9.0 9.3 9.6 9.0 9.0 9.1 9.8

Childcare, other than for illness(1)

93.9 95.3 92.7 95.6 94.9 96.1 9.3 9.5 9.1 9.2 9.2 9.1

Eldercare(2)

94.7 97.3 92.8 93.0 92.4 93.4 9.4 9.5 9.2 9.0 9.9 90.6

Vacation

92.0 91.8 92.2 99.4 99.1 99.8 9.4 9.5 9.2 9.2 9.6 9.7

Errands or personal reasons

98.8 92.3 94.9 92.9 90.7 95.4 9.2 9.4 9.1 9.1 9.7 9.7

Birth or adoption of a child

99.2 99.0 99.5 9.2 90.9 9.4 9.2 9.2 9.3 9.3 9.0 90.9

(1) Results are for workers who were parents of household children under age 18.
(2) Results are for workers who, in the previous 3 to 4 months, provided care to someone age 65 or older with a condition related to aging.
- Data not collected.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers, 15 years and over, at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded.


Table 4. Workers who took leave from their jobs during an average week, hours of leave taken, and main reason for taking leave, by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total
workers
(in thou-
sands)
Workers who took paid or unpaid leave during an average week for any reason
Total
(in thou-
sands)
Percent Average
hours of
leave
taken
Percent distribution by main reason for taking leave
Total Own
illness or
medical
care
Illness or
medical
care of a
family
member
Childcare
or
eldercare
(other
than for
illness)
Vaca-
tion
Errands
or
personal
reasons
Birth or
adoption
of a child
Holiday Weather Other

Age

Total, 15 years and over

943,325 90,476 91.3 93.10 900.0 90.1 9.4 9.0 99.3 90.6 9.4 9.8 9.4 9.0

15 to 24 years

91,040 s 95.0 s s s s s s s s s s s

25 to 34 years

92,522 9,739 93.8 93.33 900.0 97.5 9.8 9.9 94.6 91.0 9.6 9.9 9.6 9.2

35 to 44 years

90,382 9,426 91.2 92.62 900.0 96.7 93.1 9.9 98.8 95.1 9.6 9.4 9.5 9.9

45 to 54 years

99,130 9,766 93.2 91.45 900.0 94.2 9.6 9.5 93.0 97.2 9.7 9.1 9.6 9.2

55 to 64 years

92,753 9,121 92.5 96.39 900.0 91.4 9.7 9.7 98.5 96.4 z 9.8 9.3 9.2

65 years and over

9,497 s 97.0 s s s s s s s s s s s

Sex

Men

95,594 95,540 90.6 92.88 900.0 98.8 9.0 9.8 90.6 91.5 9.5 9.4 9.6 9.8

Women

97,730 94,936 92.1 93.32 900.0 91.4 90.9 9.3 97.9 99.7 9.4 9.1 9.3 9.1

Race(1)

White

914,497 95,029 91.9 93.01 900.0 99.6 9.9 9.1 99.0 90.9 9.5 9.2 9.4 9.6

Black or African American

98,312 9,271 97.9 94.50 900.0 97.5 9.2 9.3 96.0 91.9 9.9 9.1 9.9 9.3

Asian

9,380 s 98.7 s s s s s s s s s s s

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

93,573 9,617 95.3 91.56 900.0 92.1 9.0 9.2 90.6 95.0 z 9.4 9.4 9.2

Non-Hispanic or Latino

919,751 96,859 92.4 93.30 900.0 98.4 9.3 9.2 90.4 90.0 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.8

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

9,400 s 97.7 s s s s s s s s s s s

High school graduates, no college

91,623 9,522 90.6 94.06 900.0 99.2 9.3 9.3 96.0 96.1 9.0 9.2 9.1 9.9

Some college or associate degree

98,627 9,840 90.4 93.56 900.0 94.9 9.1 9.7 96.2 94.3 9.6 9.8 9.2 9.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

94,633 93,656 95.0 93.10 900.0 95.3 9.7 9.0 90.9 91.6 9.4 9.5 9.7 9.0

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

97,629 90,760 92.6 92.88 900.0 95.9 94.6 9.4 98.7 96.8 9.6 9.6 9.3 9.2

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9,916 9,251 92.7 90.53 900.0 94.8 90.1 9.0 91.3 90.6 z 92.3 9.7 97.2

Parent of a child under 13 years

97,713 9,509 92.6 93.50 900.0 96.2 95.8 9.4 90.7 95.7 9.5 9.8 9.4 9.5

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

95,695 99,716 90.6 93.21 900.0 92.3 9.0 9.2 99.6 92.7 9.2 9.0 9.5 9.4

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

91,697 9,049 93.3 93.26 900.0 92.0 9.3 9.9 98.3 97.6 9.4 94.7 z 9.7

Professional and related

97,333 9,377 92.4 93.18 900.0 91.7 9.8 9.2 97.3 93.1 9.2 9.5 9.4 9.7

Services

93,784 9,232 97.8 94.07 900.0 95.3 91.7 9.5 92.6 97.4 9.8 9.6 9.4 94.8

Sales and related

92,351 9,193 97.8 94.65 900.0 91.7 9.8 9.1 91.6 97.5 z 9.4 9.2 9.7

Office and administrative support

99,798 9,849 94.5 92.43 900.0 90.4 91.4 9.3 97.8 99.8 9.6 9.4 9.3 9.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

9,847 s 99.1 s s s s s s s s s s s

Installation, maintenance, and repair

9,939 s 92.5 s s s s s s s s s s s

Production

9,001 s 91.7 s s s s s s s s s s s

Transportation and material moving

9,227 s 91.6 s s s s s s s s s s s

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

Construction

9,697 s 99.9 s s s s s s s s s s s

Manufacturing

96,528 9,119 94.9 92.01 900.0 93.6 9.6 9.4 97.1 97.9 9.8 92.4 9.1 90.1

Wholesale and retail trade

99,014 9,413 97.9 95.59 900.0 92.1 9.1 9.5 98.7 97.4 z 9.0 9.4 9.8

Transportation and utilities

9,018 s 94.8 s s s s s s s s s s s

Information

9,666 s 94.5 s s s s s s s s s s s

Financial activities

90,616 9,706 95.5 96.67 900.0 91.7 9.7 9.9 97.4 93.4 9.2 9.5 z 9.1

Professional and business services

95,942 9,303 90.7 92.58 900.0 97.5 9.5 9.2 90.1 92.4 9.4 91.1 9.4 9.3

Education and health services

96,775 9,956 98.9 92.20 900.0 98.6 90.6 9.8 97.9 99.6 9.1 9.6 9.2 91.7

Leisure and hospitality

93,226 s 97.8 s s s s s s s s s s s

Other services

9,704 s 99.3 s s s s s s s s s s s

Public administration

9,886 9,163 91.4 91.69 900.0 97.9 94.5 9.3 95.5 96.8 9.6 9.0 z 9.3

Class of worker

Private sector

918,698 94,137 90.3 93.53 900.0 98.5 9.7 9.1 91.8 99.7 9.7 9.3 9.7 9.5

Private, for profit

906,193 91,513 90.3 93.86 900.0 98.7 9.7 9.7 92.3 90.2 9.8 9.4 9.9 9.3

Private, not for profit

92,505 9,624 91.0 90.84 900.0 97.3 9.6 9.8 97.3 96.4 9.8 9.0 z 97.6

Public sector

94,627 9,339 95.7 91.44 900.0 95.9 91.0 9.0 99.7 94.0 9.2 9.0 9.5 9.8

Federal government

9,415 s 96.3 s s s s s s s s s s s

State government

9,272 9,339 98.3 91.09 900.0 91.7 90.8 9.8 97.6 97.6 z 91.3 9.4 9.9

Local government

91,940 9,399 90.1 93.09 900.0 94.2 9.9 9.5 94.3 93.0 9.5 9.0 z 91.5

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(3)

Full-time workers

903,981 92,723 91.9 93.35 900.0 90.0 9.6 9.6 92.9 98.6 9.4 9.7 9.3 9.9

Part-time workers

96,249 9,294 96.4 90.97 900.0 93.5 95.4 9.0 95.2 97.3 9.7 9.2 9.9 9.8

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

94,145 9,311 93.7 93.89 900.0 93.3 92.7 9.8 92.7 99.0 9.5 9.7 9.3 9.0

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

96,817 9,822 95.4 92.58 900.0 91.1 9.7 9.8 99.8 96.5 9.2 9.1 9.4 9.5

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

96,532 9,354 93.9 92.91 900.0 95.4 9.9 9.2 92.9 99.3 9.1 9.2 9.4 9.5

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

96,486 9,236 93.5 94.35 900.0 96.4 9.3 9.2 91.5 99.8 9.4 94.0 9.1 9.2

Work schedule flexibility(4)

Had flexible schedule

90,286 97,427 91.7 93.29 900.0 97.3 9.7 9.5 91.0 90.5 9.2 9.6 9.6 9.6

Did not have flexible schedule

93,038 93,049 90.7 92.83 900.0 93.7 9.7 9.5 96.9 90.8 9.7 9.7 9.5 9.5

Workplace flexibility(5)

Could work at home

99,983 9,742 94.4 93.11 900.0 93.1 9.8 9.8 91.7 95.4 9.7 9.9 9.7 9.8

Could not work at home

903,080 90,729 90.1 93.09 900.0 93.3 9.2 9.7 98.1 98.4 9.2 9.8 9.8 9.5

(1) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(4) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(5) The subcategories do not sum to the totals because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 5. Workers who took leave from their jobs during an average week by type of leave used and selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total workers
(in thousands)
Workers who took paid or unpaid leave during an average week for any reason
Total (in
thousands)
Percent Percent distribution by type of leave used
Total Paid leave only Unpaid leave
only
Paid and unpaid
leave

Age

Total, 15 years and over

943,325 90,476 91.3 900.0 95.5 91.8 9.8

15 to 24 years

91,040 s 95.0 s s s s

25 to 34 years

92,522 9,739 93.8 900.0 90.0 96.9 9.1

35 to 44 years

90,382 9,426 91.2 900.0 96.3 99.9 9.8

45 to 54 years

99,130 9,766 93.2 900.0 95.5 92.5 9.0

55 to 64 years

92,753 9,121 92.5 900.0 92.8 94.2 9.0

65 years and over

9,497 s 97.0 s s s s

Sex

Men

95,594 95,540 90.6 900.0 94.6 92.8 9.7

Women

97,730 94,936 92.1 900.0 96.4 90.8 9.8

Race(1)

White

914,497 95,029 91.9 900.0 94.9 92.2 9.9

Black or African American

98,312 9,271 97.9 900.0 95.7 90.9 9.5

Asian

9,380 s 98.7 s s s s

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

93,573 9,617 95.3 900.0 92.9 95.5 9.6

Non-Hispanic or Latino

919,751 96,859 92.4 900.0 97.2 99.9 9.9

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

9,400 s 97.7 s s s s

High school graduates, no college

91,623 9,522 90.6 900.0 92.9 91.3 9.8

Some college or associate degree

98,627 9,840 90.4 900.0 95.5 92.1 9.4

Bachelor's degree and higher

94,633 93,656 95.0 900.0 98.6 99.6 9.9

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

97,629 90,760 92.6 900.0 96.5 90.2 9.3

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9,916 9,251 92.7 900.0 93.6 95.8 9.6

Parent of a child under 13 years

97,713 9,509 92.6 900.0 97.3 98.7 9.0

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

95,695 99,716 90.6 900.0 94.9 92.6 9.4

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

91,697 9,049 93.3 900.0 90.0 99.6 9.3

Professional and related

97,333 9,377 92.4 900.0 95.1 91.3 9.5

Services

93,784 9,232 97.8 900.0 95.0 93.3 9.7

Sales and related

92,351 9,193 97.8 900.0 93.0 95.8 9.2

Office and administrative support

99,798 9,849 94.5 900.0 94.8 91.0 9.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

9,847 s 99.1 s s s s

Installation, maintenance, and repair

9,939 s 92.5 s s s s

Production

9,001 s 91.7 s s s s

Transportation and material moving

9,227 s 91.6 s s s s

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s

Construction

9,697 s 99.9 s s s s

Manufacturing

96,528 9,119 94.9 900.0 99.2 96.8 9.0

Wholesale and retail trade

99,014 9,413 97.9 900.0 95.0 92.3 9.7

Transportation and utilities

9,018 s 94.8 s s s s

Information

9,666 s 94.5 s s s s

Financial activities

90,616 9,706 95.5 900.0 99.7 99.4 9.9

Professional and business services

95,942 9,303 90.7 900.0 93.9 92.1 9.0

Education and health services

96,775 9,956 98.9 900.0 96.6 99.7 9.7

Leisure and hospitality

93,226 s 97.8 s s s s

Other services

9,704 s 99.3 s s s s

Public administration

9,886 9,163 91.4 900.0 91.6 9.4 z

Class of worker

Private sector

918,698 94,137 90.3 900.0 90.3 96.6 9.1

Private, for profit

906,193 91,513 90.3 900.0 98.0 98.7 9.3

Private, not for profit

92,505 9,624 91.0 900.0 99.7 99.0 9.3

Public sector

94,627 9,339 95.7 900.0 95.0 93.6 9.4

Federal government

9,415 s 96.3 s s s s

State government

9,272 9,339 98.3 900.0 94.1 95.9 z

Local government

91,940 9,399 90.1 900.0 94.0 94.0 9.0

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(3)

Full-time workers

903,981 92,723 91.9 900.0 95.6 91.5 9.9

Part-time workers

96,249 9,294 96.4 900.0 91.5 96.6 9.9

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers
(single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

94,145 9,311 93.7 900.0 96.3 90.2 9.5

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

96,817 9,822 95.4 900.0 91.4 96.0 9.5

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

96,532 9,354 93.9 900.0 90.9 95.7 9.4

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

96,486 9,236 93.5 900.0 94.7 92.9 9.3

Work schedule flexibility(4)

Had flexible schedule

90,286 97,427 91.7 900.0 95.5 92.9 9.6

Did not have flexible schedule

93,038 93,049 90.7 900.0 95.5 90.2 9.3

Workplace flexibility(5)

Could work at home

99,983 9,742 94.4 900.0 98.4 99.8 9.7

Could not work at home

903,080 90,729 90.1 900.0 99.4 97.4 9.2

(1) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(4) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(5) The subcategories do not sum to the totals because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 6. Workers who took leave from their jobs during an average week, hours of leave taken, and type of leave used, by main reason for taking leave, averages for the period 2017-2018
Main reason for taking leave Workers who took paid or unpaid leave during an average week
Total (in
thousands)
Percent Average hours
of leave taken
Percent distribution by type of leave used
Total Paid leave
only
Unpaid leave
only
Paid and unpaid
leave

Total

90,476 91.3 93.10 900.0 95.5 91.8 9.8

Own illness or medical care

9,115 9.3 91.60 900.0 97.9 90.3 9.8

Illness or medical care of another family member

9,558 9.8 90.70 900.0 92.1 90.7 9.2

Childcare or eldercare (other than for illness)

s 9.6 s s s s s

Vacation

9,919 9.2 97.99 900.0 98.9 98.4 9.7

Errands or personal reasons

9,287 9.4 9.97 900.0 91.9 95.5 9.6

Birth or adoption of a child

s 9.3 s s s s s

Holiday

9,373 9.7 90.26 900.0 92.5 96.0 9.5

Weather

s 9.3 s s s s s

Other

s 9.7 s s s s s

s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers, 15 years and over, at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded.


Table 7. Workers who needed to take leave from their jobs but did not take it: reasons for needing to take leave by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total
workers (in
thou-
sands)
Workers who needed to take leave during an average month but did not
Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent Percent distribution by reasons for needing to take leave(1)
Own
illness or
medical
care
Illness or
medical
care of a
family
member
Childcare or
eldercare
(other than
for illness)
Vacation Errands
or
personal
reasons
Other

Age

Total, 15 years and over

943,325 93,232 9.2 95.1 95.0 9.3 9.0 93.0 9.3

15 to 24 years

91,040 s 92.7 s s s s s s

25 to 34 years

92,522 9,916 9.0 97.5 99.4 9.6 9.7 98.2 9.2

35 to 44 years

90,382 9,887 9.5 92.7 99.1 93.0 92.5 91.8 9.0

45 to 54 years

99,130 9,495 9.6 90.4 95.2 90.2 9.9 95.4 9.5

55 to 64 years

92,753 9,866 9.2 99.8 92.2 9.6 9.2 94.2 z

65 years and over

9,497 s 9.1 s s s s s s

Sex

Men

95,594 9,571 9.4 90.6 94.8 9.4 9.4 90.3 91.6

Women

97,730 9,661 91.3 95.6 95.0 9.3 9.7 97.7 9.7

Race(2)

White

914,497 9,342 9.2 93.2 94.7 9.7 9.0 93.7 9.7

Black or African American

98,312 9,708 94.8 98.8 90.6 9.1 9.3 98.4 9.0

Asian

9,380 s 9.8 s s s s s s

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

93,573 s 9.0 s s s s s s

Non-Hispanic or Latino

919,751 91,348 9.5 96.3 96.2 9.5 9.2 90.6 9.2

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

9,400 s 90.5 s s s s s s

High school graduates, no college

91,623 9,727 9.6 92.9 91.0 91.3 9.0 98.4 9.8

Some college or associate degree

98,627 9,893 90.1 95.6 97.6 9.2 9.9 90.8 9.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

94,633 9,153 9.6 95.5 96.6 9.9 9.3 93.5 9.1

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

97,629 9,170 90.9 93.9 90.9 95.0 9.8 95.7 9.8

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9,916 s 90.6 s s s s s s

Parent of a child under 13 years

97,713 9,116 90.9 94.8 93.6 97.0 9.7 93.7 9.3

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

95,695 9,061 9.4 95.8 91.1 9.0 9.1 97.7 9.9

Class of worker

Private sector

918,698 91,276 9.5 93.5 95.1 9.9 9.8 93.1 9.1

Private, for profit

906,193 9,742 9.2 95.5 96.4 9.7 9.8 97.7 9.0

Private, not for profit

92,505 s 92.3 s s s s s s

Public sector

94,627 9,956 9.9 94.3 94.3 91.0 9.2 92.4 9.7

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

903,981 9,309 9.0 93.6 95.8 9.6 9.9 92.9 9.9

Part-time workers

96,249 s 9.7 s s s s s s

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

94,145 9,024 92.5 96.3 91.3 9.0 9.3 97.3 96.5

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

96,817 9,256 9.4 95.6 99.0 9.3 9.4 96.1 9.3

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

96,532 9,944 9.3 91.1 98.5 9.1 9.6 94.2 9.5

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

96,486 9,085 9.9 96.1 96.3 93.7 9.3 90.3 z

Work schedule flexibility(5)

Had flexible schedule

90,286 9,845 9.3 95.3 96.3 9.1 9.5 95.7 9.4

Did not have flexible schedule

93,038 9,386 91.7 94.8 93.9 9.3 9.3 90.9 9.6

Work place flexibility(6)

Could work at home

99,983 9,885 9.2 94.1 99.5 9.4 9.1 99.2 9.4

Could not work at home

903,080 90,314 90.0 95.4 93.6 9.1 9.1 94.0 9.4

(1) Estimates for reasons may sum to more than 100 percent because some people had multiple reasons for needing to take leave.
(2) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the totals because data are not presented for all races.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(5) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(6) The subcategories do not sum to the totals because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 8. Workers who needed to take leave from their jobs but did not take it: reasons for not taking leave by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total
workers
(in thou-
sands)
Workers who needed to take leave during an average month but did not
Total
(in thou-
sands)
Per-
cent
Percent distribution by reasons for not taking leave(1)
Too
much
work
No one
avail-
able to
cover
shift
Made
alternate
arrange-
ments
Wanted
to save
leave
Did not
have
enough
leave
Could not
afford loss
in income
Feared
negative
employ-
ment conse-
quence or
leave denied
Did not
have
access to
paid or
unpaid
leave
Other

Age

Total, 15 years and over

943,325 93,232 9.2 93.5 9.3 9.6 9.6 9.1 99.0 99.8 9.7 91.5

15 to 24 years

91,040 s 92.7 s s s s s s s s s

25 to 34 years

92,522 9,916 9.0 92.5 9.8 9.3 9.9 9.3 94.7 95.7 9.5 90.6

35 to 44 years

90,382 9,887 9.5 98.8 9.2 9.5 9.1 9.5 9.1 94.3 9.9 90.3

45 to 54 years

99,130 9,495 9.6 90.4 9.4 9.6 9.0 9.8 94.1 96.5 9.0 9.7

55 to 64 years

92,753 9,866 9.2 90.7 9.5 9.0 9.2 9.5 94.8 94.2 90.1 95.0

65 years and over

9,497 s 9.1 s s s s s s s s s

Sex

Men

95,594 9,571 9.4 93.8 9.9 9.5 9.5 9.5 94.2 90.6 9.9 90.8

Women

97,730 9,661 91.3 93.3 9.0 9.9 9.7 9.0 95.3 99.2 9.4 92.0

Race(2)

White

914,497 9,342 9.2 93.0 9.8 9.7 9.8 9.2 99.3 92.5 9.0 90.8

Black or African American

98,312 9,708 94.8 99.2 9.5 9.4 9.0 9.2 90.1 94.6 92.4 95.8

Asian

9,380 s 9.8 s s s s s s s s s

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

93,573 s 9.0 s s s s s s s s s

Non-Hispanic or Latino

919,751 91,348 9.5 96.3 9.8 9.9 9.7 9.3 99.7 96.0 9.7 93.3

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

9,400 s 90.5 s s s s s s s s s

High school graduates, no college

91,623 9,727 9.6 90.5 9.6 9.4 9.1 9.3 98.2 99.1 9.5 95.0

Some college or associate degree

98,627 9,893 90.1 94.7 93.4 9.9 9.4 9.7 92.1 92.1 9.0 9.9

Bachelor's degree and higher

94,633 9,153 9.6 96.2 9.0 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 98.5 9.4 90.3

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

97,629 9,170 90.9 95.7 9.8 9.2 9.3 9.3 98.6 96.8 9.4 91.0

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9,916 s 90.6 s s s s s s s s s

Parent of a child under 13 years

97,713 9,116 90.9 91.1 9.3 9.5 9.5 9.8 98.9 98.5 9.4 90.5

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

95,695 9,061 9.4 92.0 9.9 9.5 9.5 9.3 99.4 91.6 9.0 91.8

Class of worker

Private sector

918,698 91,276 9.5 93.4 9.7 9.9 9.7 9.2 90.4 99.3 9.9 91.6

Private, for profit

906,193 9,742 9.2 95.1 9.3 9.1 9.6 9.2 92.1 97.6 9.9 91.3

Private, not for profit

92,505 s 92.3 s s s s s s s s s

Public sector

94,627 9,956 9.9 93.9 9.5 90.6 9.0 9.5 91.2 92.5 9.8 90.8

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

903,981 9,309 9.0 99.8 9.3 9.4 9.1 9.8 95.6 98.3 9.0 90.2

Part-time workers

96,249 s 9.7 s s s s s s s s s

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

94,145 9,024 92.5 96.0 9.9 9.0 9.5 9.6 93.1 95.9 9.3 9.8

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

96,817 9,256 9.4 99.5 9.3 9.3 9.3 90.1 9.5 93.2 9.4 92.9

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

96,532 9,944 9.3 99.8 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.2 91.0 97.7 9.1 93.4

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

96,486 9,085 9.9 91.5 9.0 9.0 9.3 9.0 9.0 96.9 9.9 9.4

Work schedule flexibility(5)

Had flexible schedule

90,286 9,845 9.3 94.1 9.0 9.7 9.1 9.3 95.7 90.6 9.0 91.8

Did not have flexible schedule

93,038 9,386 91.7 95.1 9.8 9.9 9.3 9.3 91.7 97.0 9.3 91.2

Work place flexibility(6)

Could work at home

99,983 9,885 9.2 91.8 9.2 9.6 9.6 9.0 9.4 9.7 9.2 95.4

Could not work at home

903,080 90,314 90.0 95.6 9.2 9.4 9.4 9.7 92.3 93.5 9.9 90.4

(1) Estimates for reasons may sum to more than 100 percent because some people had multiple reasons for not taking leave.
(2) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the totals because data are not presented for all races.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(5) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(6) The subcategories do not sum to the totals because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Last Modified Date: November 04, 2020